Seventeenth century European ladies with ruffs. Having to be restarched for each wearing, they became a major status symbol. Social climbers but a princess in the bunch.

Portrait of a Daughter of Dieterich Bromsen. ca. 1638.
Portrait of a Daughter of Dieterich Bromsen. ca. 1638. Michael Conrad Hirt, artist (1613-1671). Collection of the Dayton Art Institute. Image via commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%27Portrait_of_a_Daughter_of_Dieterich_Bromsen%27_by_Michael_Conrad_Hirt,_Dayton_Art_Institute.jpg
Probably Theodora van Duvenvoorde. 1620.
Probably Theodora van Duvenvoorde. 1620. Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt, painter. Collection of the Museo del Prado. via commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mierevelt-retrato_de_una_seƱora-prado.jpg.
Elizabeth I of England. ca. 1575.
Elizabeth I of England. ca. 1575. the Darnley portrait. Artist not known. Collection of the National Portrait Gallery. via commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Darnley_stage_3.jpg

All works in the public domain.

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